Indication of Pap smear

Pap Smear: Overview, Indications, Preparatio

  1. Indications. The Pap test is indicated to screen for malignant and premalignant lesions of the cervix. The recommended age at initiation of cervical cancer screening has undergone significant..
  2. What Is a Pap Smear? A Pap smear is a gynecological exam that tests specifically for cervical dysplasia, which are abnormal cervical cells that can directly lead to cervical cancer. Quite often, a Pap smear is part of a routine gynecological exam, during which the physician is also checking other areas of gynecological health
  3. A Pap smear is used to screen for cervical cancer. The Pap smear is usually done in conjunction with a pelvic exam. In women older than age 30, the Pap test may be combined with a test for human papillomavirus (HPV) — a common sexually transmitted infection that can cause cervical cancer
  4. In the middle of their monthly cycle, a woman can have a Pap smear test undertaken or 10 to 20 days after the emergence of their last monthly cycle. Before 2 days of the test you should go on to avoid anything in the vagina and this would indicate the use of creams or sexual activity
  5. A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on your cervix. The cervix is the opening of the..

Pap Smear: Overview, Indications, Preparation - The Woman

The Pap smear is a test to detect cervical cancer. During the Pap smear, your doctor will take a sample of your cervical tissue cells. The officer will then examine using a microscope to detect if there are abnormal cells in the sample that may develop into cancer (precancerous cells) or cells that have become cancerous A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a test used to detect abnormal cells on the cervix that are cancerous or may become cancerous. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. A Pap smear is conducted by taking a sample of cells from the surface of the cervix during a pelvic exam using a swab or small brush

Pap smear - Mayo Clini

  1. e estrogen activity related to menopause or endocrine abnormalities. 5
  2. Depending on the severity of the inflammation, women may be unaware of the condition until they receive pap smear results indicating inflammation. Symptoms of cervical inflammation include abnormal..
  3. Pap smear is indicated for the following reasons: Identify the presence of sexually transmitted disease such as human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes, chlamydia, cytomegalovirus, Actinomyces spp., Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp. Detect primary and metastatic neoplasms Evaluate abnormal cervical changes (cervical dysplasia
  4. The presence of endocervical cells on a Pap smear is an indication that the smear included sampling of the cervical canal and, by inference, the squamo-columnar junction. If endocervical cells are not seen, it may mean: You did not sample high enough in the cervical canal
  5. ation. The cells are evaluated for abnormalities, specifically for pre- cancerous and cancerous changes
  6. Pap smear. Pap smear or Pap test is performed to check for cervical cancer in females. Pap smear involves the scraping of the cells from the cervix, which is a narrow, lower end of the uterus, present at the top of the vagina. This collection of cells sample is then sent to the lab to be reviewed under the microscope

What A Pap Smear Test Indicate - Fateri

Pap smear 1. DR.GEORGE PAPANICOLAOU 2. The first workshop was held in 1988, to reduce widespread confusion among laboratories and clinicians created by the use of multiple classification systems and inconsistently defined numerical grading conventions.Earlier versions of bethesda include 3 categories of adequacy: Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Borderline.The 2001 bethesda system eliminates the. A Pap smear is a microscopic examination of cells taken from the uterine cervix. A Pap test can detect certain viral infections such as human papillomavirus ( HPV ), which is known to cause cervical cancer. Early treatment of precancerous changes ( cervical dysplasia) detected on the Pap smear can stop cervical cancer before it fully develops The Papanicolaou test (abbreviated as Pap test, also known as Pap smear (AE), cervical smear (BE), cervical screening (BE), or smear test (BE)) is a method of cervical screening used to detect potentially precancerous and cancerous processes in the cervix (opening of the uterus or womb) or colon (in both men and women) A Papanicolaou test, commonly called a Pap smear, tests for abnormal cells in your cervix - the area connecting the uterus to the vagina - and determines if these cells may be precancerous (called..

The proposed system has the capability of analyzing a full pap-smear slide within 3 min as opposed to the 5-10 min per slide in the manual analysis. The tool presented in this paper is applicable to many pap-smear analysis systems but is particularly pertinent to low-cost systems that should be of significant benefit to developing economies Laboratories use one of two systems to classify Pap smear results.Traditional Reporting SystemThe older system classifies each cell sample asClass INormalClass IIAtypicalClass IIIMild, moderate, or severe abnormalityClass IVCarcinoma in situ, that is, a growth that has the characteristics of cancer cells but has not yet reached the deepest layers of the tissueClass VSuspiciou Unsatisfactory for Evaluation indicates that: The specimen was processed and examined but was unsatisfactory for evaluation because of obscuring factors (excessive RBCs, WBCs or mucous) or insufficient epithelial cells or cytolysis. The reason the Pap test was considered Unsatisfactory for Evaluation will be indicated in the report An abnormal Pap smear may indicate that you have an infection or abnormal cells called dysplasia. It's important to remember that abnormal Pap smear results do not mean you have cancer. These results just show that further testing should be done to verify whether or not there is a problem A Pap test is a routine collection of cells from a woman's cervix, the lower end of the uterus that connects to the vagina. According to Angelique W. Levi, MD, a Yale Medicine pathologist, the Pap test has evolved significantly over time.Today's Pap test not only shows that a woman has or may develop cervical cancer, but it can also be used to test for a wide range of other gynecological.

Pap Smear (Pap Test): Reasons, Procedure & Result

  1. A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, involves collecting cells from the vagina and cervix —the lower, narrow end of the uterus that's at the top of the vagina. The Pap smear is usually done in conjunction with a pelvic exam. An HPV test is a test for high risk strains of HPV (cancer-causing strains) that can be done at the same time as a Pap.
  2. The Pap test is used in diagnosing cervical cancer and human papillomavirus, or HPV. An abnormal Pap smear doesn't necessarily indicate a condition like HPV or cervical cancer. Pap smears detect any changes within the cervical cells, not just cervical cancer
  3. A sample of the cervix is taken during a pelvic exam and smeared on a glass slide to be viewed under the microscope. If the cells look abnormal then they are graded and reported as abnormal. The abnomality is usually caused by a papilloma virus infection and might lead to the development of cervical cancer. 6350 view

A pap smear is a cell biopsy of a woman's cervix to test for cervical cancer. If the cells are found to be abnormal, doctors may want to remove tissue to prevent cancer, which works 95% of the time. A Pap smear ( Pap test) is a test that collects cells from the cervix to check for abnormal cervical cells that can lead to cervical cancer Pap smear. Pap smear or Pap test is performed to check for cervical cancer in females. Pap smear involves the scraping of the cells from the cervix, which is a narrow, lower end of the uterus, present at the top of the vagina. This collection of cells sample is then sent to the lab to be reviewed under the microscope No one wants to hear that the results of their annual pap smear test have come back abnormal, but abnormal results seldom indicate the presence of cervical cancer. For many women, inflammation of the cervical cells is the reason for the abnormal results and is usually not a cause for concern

Pap Smear: Definition, Cost, 5 Indications, Preparation

Pap Smear. Pap smears are a lifesaving screening tool for cervical cancer. The test can detect abnormal cells in the cervix before they become cancerous. Healthcare providers often perform HPV tests during Pap tests to check for a virus that raises the risk of cervical cancer. An unclear or abnormal Pap smear result may be a sign of infection. The Papanicolaou-stained smear (Pap smear) remains the primary screening test for cervical cancer. If regular Pap smears are performed, most cervical cancers can be detected and treated. In fact, cervical cancer is one of the most successfully treated cancers. The test mainly examines the cervical smear for cervical dysplasia or pre-cancerous.

Pap Smear (Pap Test) Lab Tests Onlin

Nice To Know: The HPV test. Approved by the FDA in 1999, the Hybrid Capture II test may. Identify strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) that can lead to cervical cancer. clarify uncertain Pap smear results; provide prompt reassurance to women whose tests indicate that slight changes have occurred in the flat cells on the surface of the cervix (ASCUS Currently, two pathologists review the Pap smear before labeling it as unsatisfactory. Root cause analysis is done for all unsatisfactory Pap smears. Regular feedback about the causes of unsatisfactory Pap smears is given to the doctors involved in the Pap smear collection. Education and retraining are provided periodically for junior doctors A Pap smear can not only indicate the presence of cancer cells in the cervix, it can also highlight precancerous cells that may change over time and become cancer. Treatment for precancerous cells is possible, designed to stop changes that lead to cancer. Potential for less treatment A Pap smear may come back positive if you have: Inflammation: This may clear up on its own or with antibiotics. Minor cell changes: Watch and wait. Get another Pap smear in 2-3 months. Moderate to severe cell changes: This may be an indication of precancerous changes of the presence of cancer. Further tests are needed. How often should I get a. Pap Smear Introduction • Papanicolaou test ( Pap smear) • Is a screening test to check for changes in the cells of your cervix • Is the best way to prevent cervical cancer Pap Smear Indication 1

An Introduction to Colposcopy Grothuesmann

A Pap Smear, usually done during your first prenatal visit is a test used to look for changes in the cells of the cervix which indicate cervical cancer or conditions that may develop into cancer. Pap smears do not diagnose cancer, but they detect 95% of cervical cancers at a stage when they cannot be seen with the naked eye The Pap smear should be repeated. • BENIGN. The Pap smear showed infection, irritation or normal cell repair. If you have an infection, you may need medication. Otherwise, your healthcare provider will most likely recommend another Pap smear. • ASCUS. (Atypical cells of undetermined significance) — The Pap smear showed some abnormal.

Two screening tests can help prevent cervical cancer or find it early— The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers, cell changes on the cervix that might become cervical cancer if they are not treated appropriately.; The HPV test looks for the virus (human papillomavirus) that can cause these cell changes.Both tests can be done in a doctor's office or clinic A Pap smear, also called a Pap test, is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. It tests for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix. The cervix is the opening of the uterus. Cancer of the cervix (cervical cancer) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide Phrases in your pap smear results that indicate a problem: Atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance. Also called ASCUS.. The pathologist sees abnormal cells, but doesn't know why. Could be an infection, could be the start of a true abnormality. Your gyno will either repeat the test in 6-12 months, or order an HPV test A PAP smear is usually performed by your GP or other trained health professional. It is simple, quick and often painless. There is slight discomfort with the procedure but this is usually tolerable. It is a minor test and you can engage in any desirable activity without any problems (drive back home, sporting or sexual) after the procedure

A Pap smear (or Pap test) is a simple procedure that looks for abnormal cell changes in the cervix. The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus, located at the top of your vagina. The Pap smear. Cervical cancer screening is used to find changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead to cancer. Screening includes cervical cytology (also called the Pap test or Pap smear), testing for human papillomavirus (HPV), or both.Most women should have cervical cancer screening on a regular basis I got an abnormal pap smear test with mild cell changes. I was given a dosage of antibiotics and clotrimazole vaginal cream and told to have another smear test in six months. Is this a normal procedure? burcidi May 6, 2013 . I had an abnormal pap smear test too, when I was pregnant. My doctor didn't find anything wrong though Evolution of the Pap Smear By Monika Mahajani. May 28, 2019-- This May we recognized Georgios Papanikolaou for his revolutionary research in cervical cancer screening and prevention — you might even recall seeing him on the Google doodle on May 13th!Did you know that there were approximately 570,000 cases of cervical cancer that were diagnosed in 2018 alone

Pap smear - SlideShar

In some instances, a pap smear will provide abnormal test results. This is not always an indication of cancer. In fact, some other changes in the reproductive system can cause an abnormal pap smear result, including HPV, yeast infections, or hormonal fluctuations. If a test comes back abnormal, another may be done or a more thorough evaluation. A Pap smear or Pap test is a diagnostic test that uses a sample of cells taken from the cervix, the uterine opening, to look for abnormal changes that could indicate the presence of cancer or other medical issues. Pap tests are performed during a routine pelvic exam

Cervical cancer screening is an important part of preventing cancer or detecting it early. Two tests are used for screenings: the Pap test (or smear) and the HPV test. The Pap test checks for cell changes on a woman's cervix that could turn into cancer if they are not treated. The HPV test looks for human papillomavirus (HPV) Sensitivity and specificity of observer B on the indication of CPAP were calculated. The interobserver agreement for the indication of CPAP was assessed using kappa statistics. Results. 38 subjects were included (26 men, mean age 47.5, mean RDI 28.7, mean BMI 31.4 kg/m 2 ). The prevalence of OSA was 84% Dr. William Jurewitz answered. Specializes in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Normal: That is a perfectly normal pap smear result. No worries. Abnormal pap smears will mention hpv present, dysphasia, neoplasia or carcinoma. Your pap ind Read More. 0. 0 comment What Is a Pap Smear Test, and Why Do You Need It? Also known as a Pap test, a Pap smear refers to the procedure of collecting cells from your cervix to test for cervical cancer. The gynecologist looks for abnormal cell changes that might indicate the development of cancer. Besides a Pap test, the gynecologist will also test for HPV (human. Abnormal Pap Smears And HPV. Abnormal Pap Smears are typically caused by strains of the Human Papilloma Virus, HPV. An abnormal pap smear result does not mean you have cervical cancer. High risk strains can cause more serious cellular changes. Typically, both high and low risk strains of HPV go away within 24 months

If the first indication of cancer was a full-fledged or advanced form of the disease, there is a high likelihood of a misread pap smear history. Our attorneys handling cervical cancer claims from women and families nationwide believe these individuals may be eligible for real compensation for the pain, medical expenses, and losses resulting. Perinuclear halo indicate Trichomonas vaginalis in Pap smear Published: January 11, 2019 004 Discussion Papanicolaou is the best staining method in cytology, because it helps to effectively differentiate malignant cells from non-malignant cells. It also stains the cytoplasm and its contents [7] Pap smear definition is - a method for the early detection of cancer especially of the uterine cervix that involves the staining of exfoliated cells using a special technique which differentiates diseased tissue —called also Papanicolaou smear, Papanicolaou test, Pap test. How to use Pap smear in a sentence Tricia Christensen A diagram of the female reproductive system, including the cervix. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is a mildly abnormal reading that may occur when a woman gets a PAP smear. Sometimes abnormal squamous cells are found, but their presence don't clearly indicate that there is cancerous or a precancerous state

Study: Risk of urinary tract infection increases after a pap smear. Dr Jeffrey Tiemstra, Dr Patricia Chico, and Emily Pela conducted research to determine if the incidence of urinary tract infection increased following a pap smear and pelvic examination. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical condition, especially for women Cervical cancer is the third-most common cancer among women worldwide. The single best way to prevent it is with regular screenings, in the form of a Pap smear. At Capital Women's Care in Silver Spring and Laurel, Maryland, you receive regular Pap smears as part of your gynecology care to identify any abnormal cells on your cervix, the lower part of your uterus

What Does Inflammation Indicate on a Pap Test? Healthy

A pap smear is a medical procedure your doctor uses to detect changes in cervical cells whether they have the potential of becoming cancerous. When caught early, there is a very high chance of successfully preventing the majority of cervical cancer cases or treating cervical cancer at the early stage Pap smears are a critical part of a comprehensive women's health regimen, used to detect abnormal cervical cells. Ideally, you'll have a clear pap smear every time. However, abnormal results are common and can mean different things. Here's what you should know. 4 Potential Causes of an Abnormal Pap Smear 1. Inflammatio cervical cancer can be detected by Pap smear before manifestation of its symptoms, 46 (29.7%) knew that Pap smears can reduce deaths from cervical cancer and 50 (32.2%) knew that a Pap smear should be continued after menopause (Table 3). There was a significant relationship between knowledge level of the women with a history of Pap smear (p<0.001)

New Tampon-Like Device May Make Cervical Cancer Screening

Pap Smear (Papanicolaou Smear) Nursing Responsibilities

A Pap smear is a routine screening for cervical cancer. Also called a Pap test, it gets its name from George Papanicolaou, the physician who first discovered the test for detecting early-stage cervical cancer.. Pap smears are the best way to identify abnormal cervical cells that could indicate cancer A pap smear is a screening test designed to check for abnormal cells on the cervix. Thomas Bickley, DO, and Eericca Bickley, DO, of Arizona Women's Health Partners offer pap smears to women in Mesa, AZ and serving Gilbert, AZ. To schedule a pap smear, women should contact Arizona Women's Health Partners. 480-666-3884 Reporting Pap Smear Result. A pap test result may either be normal or abnormal, depending on the presence or absence of cancerous cells in the cervix. An abnormal pap test result does not necessarily indicate the patient has cancer, it only suggests there could be traces of cancerous cells and a need to do further test

Pap Smear Interpretation - CGM

Pap Smear: Abnormal Results, When to Get One & Guideline

An abnormal Pap smear test does not necessarily indicate cervical cancer or a pre-cancerous state. However, it does mean that you need further evaluation to understand the cause behind an abnormal Pap smear result. Some of the possible causes for an abnormal Pap smear other than Human Papillomavirus Infection include. Infection or inflammation. Women with inflammation on Pap smear were given treatment as per WHO guidelines and Pap smear was repeated at an interval of 6-12 weeks. Women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear were then subjected to colposcopy and directed biopsy if required. Results: Of the 420 women screened, 102 (24.3%) women had a Pap smear showing inflammation Two screening tests can help prevent cervical cancer or find it early—. The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers, cell changes on the cervix that might become cervical cancer if they are not treated appropriately.; The HPV test looks for the virus (human papillomavirus) that can cause these cell changes.The Pap test is recommended for all women between the ages of 21 and 65 years old

X-Ray and Diagnostic Studies Indications: Pap tests are the mainstay of screening for cancer of the vagina, cervix, and uterus. They are routinely performed on women older than 21 years or on younger women who are sexually active. Test Explanation: A pap test is taken to detect neoplastic cells in cervical and vaginal secretions. This test is based on the fact that normal cells and abnormal. Also called a smear test or cervical screening, a pap smear is a test that checks the health of your cervix. The test helps to prevent cancer by collecting a small sample of cells and looking for any abnormalities, including the presence of HPV. A pap smear can catch cervical cancer early, or, in pre-cancer cases, if anything unusual is found.

Pap Smear Procedure: Purpose, Risks, Treatment and Results

The purpose of a Pap smear is to collect cells from your cervix, which is the lower end of your uterus. The cells collected in a Pap smear can detect if you have cervical cancer or suspicious cells that indicate you may develop cervical cancer Several studies indicate that rates of cancer death due to cervical cancer dropped tremendously after the 1950s when the pap smear screening programs started. ( 3 ) When performing a pap smear, the gynecologist inserts a speculum into the woman's vagina so she is able to widen the opening and exam the cervix and vagina indication to proceed with an endometrial evaluation. In- tervention in such patients is mandatory regardless of the associated Pap smear finding. Asymptomatic patients who have Pap smear abnormalities pose a clinical dilemma. Clinicians have no rigid criteria to guide them in the management of these patients If abnormal Pap smears persist for 1 year, or if an HSIL Pap smear is obtained at any time, colposcopy should be performed. HSIL. There is no controversy about management of patients with high.

The Classification for Pap smear Analysis aims at classifying the Pap smear cells whether it is affected or not by using the extracted features of gray level co-occurrence matrix technique. Then in this paper using Support Vector Machine, KNN and ANN Classification techniques. Then the final classification results UTILIZATION OF THE MATURATION INDEX FROM A PAP SMEAR. The body manufactures three main kinds of estrogen: estradiol, estrone, and estriol. Estrogens are promoters of tissue growth, stimulating the proliferation of cells in the reproductive organs of women, particularly in the endometrium, the blood-rich lining of the uterus that is shed during menstruation An abnormal Pap smear means some percentage of your cervix cells appear abnormal in shape or size. In most cases, an abnormal Pap smear does not indicate cancer and is in fact caused by HPV

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An anal Pap smear is the anal counterpart of the cervical Pap smear. It is used for the early detection of anal cancer.Some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause anal cancer. Other HPV types cause anogenital warts.Cigarette smokers, men who have sex with men, individuals with a history of immunosuppression (such as in HIV infection) and women with a history of cervical, vaginal and. Awareness, knowledge and attitude toward Pap smear testing Only 27.9% (126/452) of the study participants had heard about cervical cancer prevention through screening. Among these, 65.1% (82/126) had had a Pap smear previ-ously. The principal motivation to undergo Pap smear testing as cited by these women was the demand of thei Pap smears check for the presence of abnormal cells and can indicate whether the person either has or could develop cervical cancer. Most people receive normal results from the Pap smears A Pap smear is a procedure that tests for cervical cancer and takes just a few minutes. This procedure involves collecting cells from the cervix, which is the lower, narrow end of the uterus that's at the top of the vagina. During a Pap smear, the person lies on an exam table and places their feet in stirrups

Medical investigations in gynecological patients

Diagnostic values of Pap smear were 58.0%, 85.2%, 69.9%, 83.3% and 61.3% for its sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV, respectively. This means that Pap smears are needed on VIA+ patients because VIA is very sensitive, but with a lower PPV. Pap smear has a high PPV which can determine who truly had CIN2+ Pap smear test results show the presence of abnormal, precancerous or cancerous cells in the cervix, which is the lowest part of the uterus that opens at the top of the vagina. Regular Pap smears can help detect cervical cancer. A Pap smear test is essentially the microscopic examination of cells scraped from the uterine cervix Cytology Pap Smear/Gynecological Specimen Principle: The Pap smear is used to sample the female genital trac t for presence of cellular change s which may indicate cervical or uterine carcinoma or their precursors. Cells are scrapped or brushed by a qualified physician, physician's assistant, nurse, o Let's talk about HPV. HPV is a super common (and often asymptomatic) sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can lead to cervical cancer. If you're over age 30, your Pap test will be accompanied by a test for HPV.But not all forms of HPV can lead to cancer — two known specific types of HPV (Types 16 and 18) cause 80% of cervical cancer cases, and the HPV vaccine protects against both

A pap smear is a routine screening test that checks for cancers or pre-cancerous cells in your cervix, which is the bottom part of your uterus. Most doctors recommend that women or people who were assigned female at birth get a pap smear once every 3-5 years, starting at age 21 Pap Smear: Everything You Need To Know. A pap smear is a non-invasive procedure carried out by a doctor or a specialized nurse to look for any changes in cervical cells. It is also called a pap test or a smear test. The test was named after Dr. Georgios Papanikolaou, who came up with the procedure

Pap smear is a very important and useful method for cervical cancer screening. Globally, efforts to prevent the disease have been focused on screening women using Pap smears and treating precancerous lesions. Impressive results have been achieved in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality in some developed countries by Pap smear screening Pap smear findings have the appropriate diagnostic accuracy in comparison with colposcopy and histopathology findings for screening and diagnosis of squamous intra-epithelial lesions. Also, there was higher sensitivity of colposcopy compared with Pap smear to detect cervical lesions. Therefore, it is advisable to use these methods simultaneously A Pap smear is a cervical cancer test. During your Pap smear, your OB/GYN at Seasons of Life Obstetrics & Gynecology gently opens the entrance to your uterus, the cervix, with a speculum to collect a small sample of cells for testing. The Pap smear checks your cell sample for abnormal changes that could indicate cervical cancer or potential.

The gynaecological examination pptAbnormal pap smear ศิริราช ppt

Before the pelvic exam and Pap smear are performed by the physician, you should discuss the following relative contraindications with the patient to ensure that the Pap smear is accurate: the use of vaginal creams, spermicidal jelly, or douches, or vaginal intercourse within the last 24 hours Results of Pap smear. Results of a Pap smear test can be normal or abnormal. A normal result indicates that no abnormal cells were present in the cervix. It can also be called a negative result. If the test result is abnormal, it doesn't necessarily mean that you have cancer. It could also indicate the presence of precancerous cells

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While T. vaginalis should be reported in cervical and vaginal Pap smears, its absence in these smears is not an indication for absolute absence of the organism in the patient. In this study, Papanicolaou stained smears were examined and compared with results of the presence of perinuclear halo in the epithelial cells was used as a presumptive. Most women are recommended to get a Pap smear every year. It's an important test that can check on the health of your cervix and identify possible problems. Most of the time, you get a card in the mail that says your results are normal. But, sometimes, your doctor says they found abnormal cells in your Pap smear Conclusion: Pap smear followed by cervical biopsy is an effective method for detection of pre-cancerous, cancerous and non-cancerous changes in the cervix. Keywords: malignant, cervical cancer, pap smear, cervical biopsy. I. Introduction apanicolaou (Pap) smear is a simple, safe, non-invasive and effective method for detection of pre A Pap smear is a screening test to check for changes in the cervix which may indicate that it may go on to develop cancer, explains Dr. Kam. This test is done to identify pre-cancer cells―in other words, abnormal cells―before cancer develops. The beauty of a Pap smear test is that it is a simple and reliable way of detecting cervical. The Pap smear results may contain any of the following: Normal cells; Abnormal cells; Presence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) Pap smear recommendations change frequently, make sure to always ask your gynecologist for the most current recommendation on screening. Normal cells constitute a negative result In this study, the effect of health education on performing Pap smear test for prevention of cervix cancer in teachers of Isfahan city was evaluated. In this quasi-experimental study, effect of health education on the knowledge, attitude and performance of the 150 female teachers about Pap smear test to prevent cervix cancer was evaluated

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